The following MCQs have been collected from the past CSS Criminology papers. These are the most repeated MCQs in Criminology papers. Candidates appearing in CSS, PMS, and UPSC Exams must prepare these MCQs for the Criminology paper which is usually an optional subject in exams.
Criminology MCQs for CSS, PMS, UPSC Exams
- The Psychology of Criminal Conduct is written by A. Andrews and James Bonta.
- According to John F. Galliher, legal definitions of criminality are arrived at through a Sociological process.
- The pluralistic perspective suggests that behaviors are typically criminalized through a political process.
- Magna Carta was issued in June 1215 and was the first document to put into writing the principle that the king and his government were not above the law.
- Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved Babylonian code of law of ancient Mesopotamia, dating to about 1754 BC.
- Penology is the study of the punishment of crime and of prison management.
- On May 18, 2018, the President of Pakistan approved the Juvenile Justice System Act (JJSA) 2018. JJSA 2018 overcomes the shortcomings which were present in Juvenile Justice System Ordinance 2000. (XXII of 2000)
- Stockholm syndrome is a condition in which hostages develop a psychological bond with their captors during captivity.
- The term criminology was first coined by the Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo in 1885 (in Italian, criminologia).
- In 1939, the American criminologist Edwin Sutherland coined the term White Collar Crime.
- FIA was founded on January 13, 1975.
- ANF 1995
- Edwin M. Lemertdistinguishes between primary and secondary deviance.
- An individual first commit primary deviance. Through a process of labeling the individual is forced to play the role of deviant.
- As a reaction to this role assignment (“You are a criminal!”), the labeled person adapts his behavior according to the role assigned to him (“Then I am a criminal!”). This behavior reaction is called secondary deviance.
- Blue-collar crime is any crime committed by an individual from a lower social class.
- New research suggests hot temperatures make people uncomfortable and irritated, which makes them more aggressive. Ergo, the criminal rate in the hot regions is higher than in cold regions.
- Europol was formed on October 1, 1998. || HQ The Hague, the Netherlands
- Interpol was formed on September 7, 1923, in Vienna, Austria || HQ Lyon, France || 195 member countries
- JJSO 2000, age of a child is 15 years || came into force on 1st July 2000
- Lex talionis means the law of retaliation, whereby a punishment resembles the offense committed in kind and degree.
- The Due Process Model is a type of justice system which is based on the principle that a citizen has some absolute rights and cannot be deprived of life, liberty, or property without appropriate legal procedures and safeguards.
- Crime Control Model refers to a theory of criminal justice that places emphasis on reducing crime in society through increased police and prosecutorial powers. In contrast, the “due process model” focuses on individual liberties and rights and is concerned with limiting the powers of government.
- The Consensus Model proposes that the three main agencies of the criminal justice system—that is, the police, the courts, and the prisons—work or should work together and cooperatively to achieve the same goals. Criminal law embodies the values, norms, goals, and beliefs of the citizen majority.
- The Conflict Model of criminal justice argues that the organizations of a criminal justice system should, work competitively to produce justice, as opposed to cooperatively.
- Cesare Lombrosobecame known as the father of modern criminology. He was one of the first to study crime and criminals scientifically. His theory of the born criminal dominated thinking about criminal behavior in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
- An inchoate offense, preliminary crime, inchoate crime, or incomplete crime is a crime of preparing for or seeking to commit another crime.
- Index crime: A crime included in the yearly crime statistics of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
- JJSO 2000 | Section 02: Definitions | 03: Legal Assistance | 04: Juvenile Courts | 05: No Joint Trial of a child & adult person | 06: Procedure of the Juvenile Courts | 07: Determination of Age
- The Felony Murder Rule is a rule that allows a defendant to be charged with first-degree murder for a killing that occurs during a dangerous felony, even if the defendant is not the killer.
- Durham Rule states that an accused is not criminally responsible if his unlawful act was the product of a mental disease or mental defect.
- Transferred intent is a legal doctrine that holds that, when the intention to harm one individual inadvertently causes a second person to be hurt instead, the perpetrator is still held responsible.
- M’Naghten Rule: Establishing a defense on the ground of insanity. It must be clearly proved that, at the time of the committing of the act, the party accused was laboring under such a defect of reason, from a disease of the mind, as not to know the nature and quality of the act he was doing; or if he did know it, that he did not know he was doing what was wrong.
- Amicus Curiae: An individual or organization who is not a party to a legal case, but who is permitted to assist a court by offering information, expertise, or insight that has a bearing on the issues in the case.
- Criminaloid (from the word “criminal” and suffix -oid, meaning criminal-like) is a person who projects a respectable, upright facade, in an attempt to conceal a criminal personality. This type was first defined by Cesare Lombroso in the later editions of his 1876 work The Criminal Man.
- A General Theory of Crime | work by Hirschi and Gottfredson
- The concept of psychopathic personality was developed by Hervey Cleckley.
- Anomie Theory was among the first sociological explanations for the causes of deviant behavior. Sociologists seek to understand deviance by focusing on how the structure of society can constrain behavior and cause deviance. Durkheim (1897) believed that this can happen when a society undergoes rapid social change (e.g. revolutions) when people become unsure of what society’s norms and values are.
- The concept of conditioned behavior was popularized through the work of Ivan Pavlov.
- Mala in se crime: an offense that is evil or wrong from its own nature
- Crimen sine crime: no crime without law
- Nulla poena sine lege is a legal principle that states that one cannot be punished for doing something that is not prohibited by law.
- Nullum crimen sine lege is Latin for “no crime without a law.”
- Nolo contendere crime: the defendant does not accept or deny responsibility for the charges but agrees to accept punishment.
- Mala prohibita crime: conduct that constitutes an unlawful act only by virtue of statute, as opposed to conduct that is evil in and of itself.
- Criminal etiology refers to the scientific study of how and why people commit crimes.
- Peacemaking theory is based on the premise that violence creates violence. Advocates of this theory argue that criminal justice policies constitute state-sanctioned violence that generates rather than suppresses criminal violence. || Pepinsky and Quinney‘s (1991) theory of ‘peacemaking criminology’ to criminal justice policies. Peacemaking criminology is a perspective on crime that suggests that alternative methods can be used to create peaceful solutions to crime.
- Containment theory is a form of control theory proposed by Walter Reckless. It contends that a series of external social factors and internal qualities effectively insulate certain individuals from criminal involvement even when ecological variables induce others to engage in crime.
- The argument that ‘crime is not a result of poverty or social conditions are therefore cannot be affected by social programs’ was made by Lawrence Cohen.
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